History

Historic Timeline

Alexander VI's coat of arms
1493
Doctrine of Discovery
Pope Alexander VI issued the Papal Bull “Inter Caetera” to justify Christian European explorers’ claims on land and waterways they allegedly discovered and promote Christian domination and superiority.
1493
Image of the Declaration of Independence
1776
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence touts the most well know line: “that all men are created equal" but references Native Americans as "Merciless Indian Savages".
1776
Henry Knox (Signed the Treaty of New York as Secretary of war under George Washington)
1790
Treaty of New York
This treaty effectively ended the Spanish monopoly of trade with the Creeks
1790
A historical marker near Union Springs in Bullock County, Alabama shows the Indian Territory boundary line created by the Treaty of Fort Jackson
1814
Treaty of Ft. Jackson
The 1814 Treaty of Ft. Jackson ended the Creek Way. Andrew Jackson served as the sole representative of the United States and dictated the terms, assisted by Benjamin Hawkins, the long-serving federal agent to the Creeks.
1814
Creek Cessions of the Treaty of Indian Springs (1821)(1821)
1821
Treaty of Indian Springs
The 1821 First Treaty of Indian Springs also known as Treaty with the Creeks, entailed Creeks ceding their remaining land east of the Flint River in Georgia. The treaty was signed January 8, 1821, at Indian Springs, Georgia.
1821
Scales of Justice
1823
U.S. Supreme Court:
Johnson & Graham’s Lessee v. McIntosh, 21 U.S. 543
Creek headman William McIntosh challenged the Doctrine of Discovery before the Supreme Court.
1823